or Namaste is the most popular form of greeting in India. It is a
general salutation that is used to welcome somebody and also for bidding
farewell. While doing namaskar, both the palms are placed together and
raised below the face to greet a person.
It is believed that both the hands symbolise one mind, or the self
meeting the self. While the right hand represents higher nature, the
left hand denotes worldly or lower nature.
Other common forms of greetings by various communities and regions in
India are - Sat-sri-akal by the Sikhs, Adaab by the Muslims, Vannakkam
by the Tamilians, Juley by the Laddhakis and Tashi Delag by the
Sikkimese, amongst others.
Tilak is a ritual mark on the forehead. It can be put in many forms as a
sign of blessing
greeting or auspiciousness. The tilak is usually made out of a red
vermilion paste (kumkum) which is a mixture of turmeric, alum, iodine,
camphor, etc. It can also be of a sandalwood paste (chandan) blended
The tilak is applied on the spot between the brows which is considered
the seat of latent wisdom and mental concentration, and is very
important for worship. This is the spot on which yogis meditate to
become one with Lord Brahma. It also indicates the point at which the
spiritual eye opens. All thoughts and actions are said to be governed by
this spot. Putting of the coloured mark symbolizes the quest for the
'opening ' of the third eye. All rites and ceremonies of the Hindus
begin with a tilak topped with a few grains of rice placed on this spot
with the index finger or the thumb. The same custom is followed while
welcoming or bidding farewell to guests or relations.
Is performed as an act of veneration and love. It is often performed as
a mark of worship and to seek blessings from God, to welcome the guests,
for children on their birthdays, family members on auspicious occasions
or to welcome a newly wedded couple.
For performing Arati, five small lamps called niranjanas are filled with
ghee or oil and arranged in a small tray made of metal. A wick is made
out of cotton wool and placed in the lamps. A conchshell filled with
water, auspicious leaves or flowers, incense or lighted camphor are also
placed in the tray. The lamps are lit and the tray is rotated in a
circular motion in front of the deity or the person to be welcomed. The
purpose of performing arati is to ward off evil effects and the malefic
influence of the evil eye.
Flower garlands are generally offered as a mark of respect and honour.
They are offered to welcome the visitors or in honour to the Gods and
Goddesses. The garlands are generally made with white jasmine and orange
marigold flowers. They are weaved in thread tied in the end with a help
of a knot.
bindi is an auspicious mark worn by young girls and women . Bindi is
derived from bindu, the
Sanskrit word for dot . It is usually a red dot made with vermilion
powder which is worn by women between their eyebrows on their forehead.
Considered a symbol of Goddess Parvati, a bindi signifies female energy
and is believed to protect women and their husbands. Traditionally a
symbol of marriage, it has also become decorative and is worn today by
unmarried girls and women as well.
No longer restricted in colour or shape, bindis are seen in many bright
colours and in different shapes and designs. They are also made of
coloured felt and embellished with coloured glass or glitter.
Many Indian women wear a pin on their nose studded with stones, called a
nose pin. A symbol of purity and marriage, the nose pin is today adorned
by many unmarried girls as well.
Is a necklace made of black beads, worn only by the married women as a
mark of being married. It is the Indian equivalent of the western
The mangalsutra is tied by the groom around his bride's neck.
Mangalsutra is generally made out of two strings of small black beads
with a gold pendant. The black beads are believed to act as protection
against evil. The married women wear this to protect their marriage and
the life of their husband.
In southern India, the mangalsutra is called 'tali'. It is a small gold
ornament, strung on a cotton cord or a gold chain.
Are a pair of shell (shakha) and red coral (paula) bangles worn as
marriage symbols by the Bengali women.