Mumbai is a twin of Mumbai city, India. It was established in 1972, as
a new planned city. It is the largest planned new city in the world,
with a total area of 344 km² and 163 km² under the Navi Mumbai
Municipal Corporation. Navi Mumbai lies on the mainland on the
eastern seaboard of the Thane Creek. The city limits stretch
from Airoli near Thane in the north, to Uran in the south. The length
of the city is almost the same as that of Mumbai. The Vashi and the
Airoli bridges connect Navi Mumbai to Mumbai. There is a new railway
link from Vashi to Thane via Airoli, Ghansoli, and Kopar Khairane, and
one between Panvel and Karjat.
The region was part of the kingdom of Ashoka and then various Hindu
rulers of the Silhara dynasty until 1343, when it was annexed by the
kingdom of Gujarat. In 1534, the Portuguese took the region from
Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. It remained in their hands until 1661, when
it was ceded as the dowry of Catherine de Braganza to Charles II of
England. He, in turn, leased it to the British East India Company in
1668 for £10 per annum.
The first post-independence development plan for Bombay, formulated by
the Mayer-Modak Committee in 1948, suggested satellite towns to Mumbai
(then Bombay).Ten years later in March 1958, the Study group on
Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. S. G.Barve was set
up. In February 1959 committee suggested the formation of a township
on the mainland across the Thane Creek to decongest Bombay. One of its
major recommendations was that a rail-cum-road bridge be built across
the Thane Creek to connect peninsular Bombay with the mainland. The
bridge accelerated development across the Creek, relieving pressure on
the city's railways and roadways, and attracted industrial and
residential concentrations eastward to the mainland.
Navi Mumbai spreads over parts of two districts of Maharashtra; Thane
and Raigad. The region is hilly in some parts. Parts of the region are
also protected wetlands. Unlike its bigger neighbour, the city is
sparsely populated. Navi Mumbai is a part of South Konkan coast line.
This coastal line joins Sahyadri mountain ranges in South and 50 to
100 m high hills in East. Thus the Navi Mumbai area lies between
mountain ranges and a coast line. Its coordinates are between Latitude
19.5 and 19.15, Longitude 72.55 and 73.5
Along the east, there are small hills running in north-south
direction. The lands forms part of Konkan Region. The narrow belt of
land starts at Dighe in north and ends at Kalundre in south. It is
25.60 km² in area, 20 km long and about 2.0 km wide.
A view of Balaji Temple Rajagopuram, NerulNavi
Mumbai is a cosmopolitan city and people from religion live in an
amicable situation together side by side. The best example the
Brahmagiri where CIDCO had in a planned way allotted plots to
religious activities atop a hill near the west side of the Nerul
Railway Station. Balaji Temple, Swaminarayan Temple Complex,
Amirtandamayi Temple Complex, Narayanaguru Temple complex and Little
Flower Church. All these religious institutions are well patronised by
people not only from Navi Mumbai but also from nearby Mumbai city
also. Navi Mumbai is also home to 4 major Sikh temples.
Inside the SIES complex, Nerul which is sitauted vey close to Mumbai-Pune
Highway, there is a Anjaneyar Temple, Kamakshi Amman Temple and a
Adhisankarar Mandap. The Anjaneyar idol is 33 feet in height and is
installed on a pedestal of 12 feet height, that is an over all height
of 45 feet. The Anjaneyar idol is made of a single Granite Stone.
This area has sub-tropical monsoonic climate of humid-perhumid to
semiarid and subhumid type. Overall climate is equable with high
rainfall days and very few days of extreme temperatures.
The mean annual temperature ranges from 25 to 28 °C. The mean maximum
temperature of the hottest month in this area varies from 30 to 33 °C
in April-May while mean minimum temperature of coldest month varies
from 16 to 20 °C. Extremes of temperatures, like 38 to 39 °C in summer
and 11 to 14 °C in winter, may be experienced for a day or two in
The rainy season is mostly confined to south-west monsoon with 80% of
the rainfall received during June to October (60 to 70 days). This
area, on an average, receives 2500 to 3500 mm rainfall.
The area has marine humid-perhumid climate with more humidity and less
diumal variations. Relative humidity varies from 41 to 97%. Driest
days being in winter and wettest ones experienced in July.
Features such a presence of large water body (the creek), presence of
hill ridges etc. influence the local wind patterns to some extent. No
significant micro-climatic variation is noticeable in the region.
The soils of this region are highly saline in the vicinity of creeks
and non-saline at other places. They are calcareous, neutral to
alkaline in reaction (pH 7.5 to 8.5), clayey, with high amount of
bases and have high water holding capacity (200-250 mm/m).